Present Perfect Tense
(Revision of the material presented in Part I)
We use the Present Perfect tense when we are interested in present results, this tense always shows a connection between past and present.
To revise the previously learned material read up the sentences containing Present Perfect from the extracts taken from the book Anne of Green Gables, Oxford Bookworms, Series Editor: Jennifer Basset.
One afternoon Matthew drove the horse and cart to the station. “Has the thirty-five train arrived yet?” he asked the station-master.
“Yes,” the man replied. “And there’s a passenger waiting for you. A little girl.”
“A little girl?” asked Matthew. “But I’ve come for a boy! The children’s home is sending us one of their orphan boys. We’re going to adopt him, you see, and he’s going to help me with the farm work.”
orphan a child who hasn’t got any parents
to adopt to take a child as a son or a daughter into a family
Mrs. Rachel Lynde said to Marilla: “I was very surprised to hear about the child. So you and Matthew have adopted her!”
“I am surprised myself,” answered Marilla with a smile. “But she is a clever little thing, you know. And she’s always dancing, or singing, or laughing.”
Mrs. Lynde shook her head sadly. “What a mistake, Marilla! You’ve never had any children yourself, so how can you look after her?”
When she arrived back at Green Gables, Anne knew at once that something was wrong. Matthew looked much older than before. “What’s the matter with him?” Anne asked Marilla.
“He has had some heart trouble this year,” replied Marilla. “He really isn’t well. I’m worried about him.”
1. Open the brackets using PRESENT PERFECT or PAST SIMPLE.
– ______________(ever to be) to this park?
– No, I ______________(never to be) here, but I like it here very much. There are so many things to enjoy here.
– As for me I _________(to be) here last year. We __________(to have) a lot of fun taking rides on ponies.
– Here they are ! Look! Some children are riding on horses. I __________(never to take a ride) on a horse.
– Why not try to do it now! But I think it will be wise of you to start with a pony.
– Great! Let’s go and pay for my first ride.
2. Choose the correct tense.
It is evening. George ____________(has sat, is sitting, sat) in the garden. He ____________already ____________(picked, has picked, is picking) a lot of apples. His sister ____________ just ___________(washed, has washed, is washing) them. Their mother is going to make apple jam. The children adore apple jam pie. George’s sister ______________(has never cooked, never cooked, is going to cook) it herself. She is going to watch her mother and to learn to do it herself.
Father: What ________________(do you do, are you doing, have you done), I wonder?
Daughter: I ______________(wash, have washed, am washing) the apples.
Father: Where __________(did you get, have you got, you got) them?
Daughter: George __________(is picking, picked, has picked) two big baskets of them today.
Father: What _________________(have you done, are you going to do, are you doing) with them?
Daughter: Mother and I are going to make apple jam.
Father: This week Mother _____________(made, has made, is making) 10 jars of jam!
Daughter: Great! We have a lot of apple jam to make apple pie with.
A. We should be careful when we start a talk with a sentence in Present Perfect and then go on talking and ask for details to find out more about the subject of the talk. In this case we should use Past Simple (Indefinite).
Read the dialogue which illustrates this idea.
– Have you ever met an Englishman?
– Yes, I have. Actually I have met a lot of them.
– Really? Where did you meet them?
– I met them in our school. We have an exchange with a school in England.
– I see. When was it?
– It was last year.
– Did you enjoy having English visitors?
– Of course, we did. We made friends, talked about our schools and about our plans for a future exchange.
TASK 1. Make questions using the words in brackets. You should use either Present Perfect or Past Simple.
IN A MAZE
– Have you ever been in a maze?
– Yes, I have.
– In what maze ____ you _____(to try to find) the way out?
– It was in England when we visited Leeds Castle.
– When _______(to be) it?
– Oh, it was two years ago.
– Well, you were quite little. ______ you ________(to be frightened)?
– I was, but I wasn’t alone. My elder sister was there with me.
– How long _________ it ________ (to take) you to get out of the maze?
– We wandered there for an hour and found the way out ourselves.
TASK 2. Make dialogues of your own. The topics of the dialogues are given below.
a. You want to find out if your classmate has ever taken pictures of wild animals. Ask him or her where and when it happened, what animals are in the photos and if he (she) can show you the photos.
b. You would like to find out if a newcomer to your class has ever taken part in a sport competition. Ask him what competition it was, when it took place, if he was the winner and invite him (her) to join your classmates in the same kind of competition.
c. You are interested in camping out. Ask your e-mail friend if he (she) has ever camped out, with whom he (she) lived at the campsite, if it was fun and what things you need to take with you.
TASK 3. Translate the dialogue.
– Ты когда-нибудь терял что-нибудь важное?
– Конечно, много раз.
– И что же ты терял?
– Однажды я потерял портфель и пришел в школу без него.
– Где ты потерял его?
– В метро.
– Ты нашел его потом?
– Да, я нашел его в столе находок. (the lost property office)
B. Pattern: This is the first time I have ever flown.
TASK 1. Read the sentences with this pattern.
|1. This is the most interesting book||I’ve ever read.|
|2. This is the funniest joke||I’ve ever heard.|
|3. This is the worst hotel||we have ever stayed in.|
|4. This is the most exciting show||he has ever seen.|
|5. She is the most intelligent woman||I have ever seen.|
|6. This is the best sea||we have ever swum in.|
Continue using PRESENT PERFECT.
|7. She is the most beautiful girl||I (to see).|
|8. This is the best horse||he (to ride on).|
|9. These are the most expensive shoes||she (to wear).|
|10. This is the tastiest pie||they (to eat).|
|11. He is the best cook||we (to have).|
|12. This is the most wonderful place||we (to be to).|
|13. This is the fastest train||I (to go by).|
TASK 2. Read the dialogue: “Shopping”. Read up the sentences with Pattern B.
– Well, Mary, here we are to buy you a new dress.
– Actually I need a new party dress.
– Have a look at this one. Isn’t it nice?
– I’m sorry but it is the ugliest dress I have ever seen.
– O.K. Then try on that one over there.
– It is a colour that I have never tried.
– But it is the latest fashion.
– Really? Mum, it’s the fist time I have come to this shop. Why not go to the shop where we usually do our shopping?
– All right. But this is one of the best shops we have ever been to.
TASK 3. Make comments. Read the situations, remember them and then add the comments using Pattern B.
e.g. Julian is standing in front of a very beautiful picture.
Pupil: Julian is standing in front of a very beautiful picture. This is the most beautiful picture he has ever seen.
1. Helen is at a concert of classical music. Helen is delighted with the music.
2. Nickolas is crazy about books. Now he is reading a new adventure book. Nothing can pull him away from it.
3. Freddie is good at climbing trees. He is sitting in a very high tree now. But he is enjoying himself.
4. Kate is wearing a new dress. She looks very pretty in it.
5. Kitty is in Scotland. She is on a sightseeing excursion. She is inside an ancient castle for the first time.
6. We are having a picnic surrounded by beautiful nature. We are eating barbecue. It is really very tasty.
7. We are visiting our friends. Their home is so tidy and cozy. We are impressed.
8. He collects computer games. He is playing a new computer game. He is very excited because the game is very interesting.
C. Present Perfect is often used with these time adverbs and expressions: for, since, how long.
a. for a long time, for ages, for a week (a month, a year, 10 days)
b. since + last year, one’s birthday, morning, 10 o’clock, 2006.
e.g. He has lost ten pens since September.
I haven’t been to the theatre for ages.
TASK 1. Fill in either for or since.
1. The teacher has known his pupils _________ three years.
2. Julia has been ill __________ last Monday.
3. My parents have been busy doing up their flat __________ August.
4. Jack has hated porridge __________ childhood.
5. Ben hasn’t seen his friend ____________ a whole week. He misses him greatly.
6. I have had a kitten ___________ two weeks . It has grown up a little.
7. It is 10 p.m. now. My mother has been at work __________ morning. I think she is very tired.
8. She has been married ___________ 50 years. Her family are going to celebrate it.
9. We caught this fish two hours ago. Look it has been alive ___________ two hours!
TASK 2. Read the sentences silently, one pupil asks a question with “how long”, his (her) classmate answers the question.
e.g. The sentence: Nick has known Peter for three years.
Pupil 1: How long has Nick known Peter?
Pupil 2: He has known him for three years.
1. He has been fond of traveling since his childhood.
2. She has hated this noisy street for many years.
3. The boys have been fond of camping since the second form.
4. Linda’s parents have been worried about her daughter’s health since last year.
5. Bob hasn’t phoned Anne for two weeks. I think she told him something unpleasant.
6. I haven’t eaten such tasty pizza since my last visit to this café.
7. My father hasn’t worked on the computer for a month now.
TASK 3. Fill in the sentences in the text. One sentence is an extra one.
a. You have been too busy studying for your term tests.
b. The breakfast has already been on the table for half an hour.
c. I haven’t cooked anything like that since your birthday.
d. I have made my mother angry.
e. I haven’t seen such a feast (пир) for a long time.
f. I haven’t eaten such tasty things since my birthday.
g. I’m afraid you haven’t, mum.
h. I have forgotten about my birthday.
Too Busy to Remember about His…
It is Saturday. I am lying in bed. I enjoy reading a new book on history. My mother always wants me to have breakfast with the rest of the family. I hear my mother’s steps. She knocks at the door and here she is standing at my bed and looking angrily at me. “It’s high time you got up,” she says. “________________________________________.”(1)
“Well, mum, I’m coming,” I reply.
I get up, wash my face and hands and enter the dining-room. I am shocked. ___________________________________.(2) I ask my mother: “What’s up?” and then I say something which makes my mother angry again: “__________________________________.”(3) My mother exclaims: “It’s unfair. Do you mean _________________________?”(4)
“_____________________________.”(5) I answer.
“Well, son,” my father interferes (вмешивается), “in fact, today is your birthday. These are your favourite dishes”. I feel very uncomfortable and grateful to my parents and then I realize that __________________________________.(6) My father says: “I believe ________________________________________”.(7) He smiles and gives me a big box with a birthday present.
Key: 1. b; 2. e; 3. f; 4. c; 5. g; 6. h; 7. a
|The subject||Present Perfect tense||since||Past Indefinite tense|
|I||have had horrible dreams||since||I saw that ghost film.|
TASK 1. Read the sentences with this pattern and point out the Present Perfect form of the verb.
1. Daniel has never taken a ride on a roller coaster since he fell from one and badly hurt himself.
2. Fanny has won a lot of prizes since Mr. Quick became her coach.
3. The pupils have traveled a lot since they joined the school club of young travelers.
4. Vickie has never gone to the forest alone since she got lost in the forest last year.
5. Collecting coins has been his hobby since his grandfather gave him a few ancient coins a year ago.
6. Jane has been in love with Chris since they met last July at the seaside.
7. We have camped out three times in the Lake District since we were there two years ago.
TASK 2. Talk.
1. Have you received many E-mail letters since you started communicating with your American pen-friend? (a pen-friend from any other foreign country).
2. Have you written many tests in English since school started?
3. Have you phoned Kate (give the real name of your classmate) since she fell ill?
4. Have you eaten anything since you came to school?
5. Have your parents bought you any new clothes (books, disks, toys) since you asked them for some.
6. Have you eaten sushi since you first tasted it?
7. Have you spoken English to an Englishman or an American since you started learning English?
TASK 3. Read the beginning of the story and then continue it using Present tenses. The questions help you to use correct tenses. Your answers should be logical. Try to use introductory sentences like: You see, I am sure, I believe, I know, I see.
I am in the country. I have arrived at my friends’ country place. It looks more beautiful than I saw it last.
Have many things changed since you were here last?
Have your friends planted new roses and flowers?
Have they made new flower-beds yet?
Have they just cut the hedge?
Have they ever invited a landscape designer or have they designed everything themselves?
How long have they had their country garden?
Has gardening been their hobby for a long time? (since they built their cottage or since they bought it)
I am at the meeting of the Young Travelers’ Club. I am talking about Scotland. I am delighted with this country. I was 10 when I first traveled there.
How many times have you been there since you visited it first?
Which did you like best: the sights of Glasgow and Edinburgh or the beautiful landscapes?
Have you seen Loch Ness and Loch Ness Monster?
Have you ever climbed Ben Nevis?
Have you tasted oatmeal cakes?
Have you taken many pictures of Scottish sights or Scottish landscapes?
Have you read much about Scotland since you first discovered this country?