Главная страница «Первого сентября»Главная страница журнала «Английский язык»Содержание №16/2008

Scottish History Timeline

5000 BC First people in Scotland are hunter-gatherers along the coasts
117 BC Ninth Roman Legion destroyed in Galloway
122 AD Work begins on Hadrian’s Wall across Northumbria just across “the border” in England
211 AD Roman Severus pulls out and dies on his way south at York. Romans don’t return in force
430 St. Ninian, a Briton brings Christianity to Southern Scotland
6th C Scots, Celts from Ireland arrive in Western Scotland
563 Iona religious centre founded by St. Columba
700 Celtic Church is replaced by Roman Catholic Church
780–820 Norwegians settle Shetland, Orkney and Caithness Islands
843 The Scots king Kenneth obtains the Pictish throne
1034–57 Scotland unites under Duncan I, Macbeth rules
1130 David I (1124–53) establishes Anglo-Norman families and a feudal system
1263 Alexander III defeats Haco of Norway at Largs. Hebrides and Isle of Man ceded to Scotland
1296 Edward I of England steals the “Stone of Scone”
1297 William Wallace’s greatest hour, the Battle of Stirling Bridge
1306–14 Robert I (the Bruce) crowned king and then wins the Battle of Bannockburn
1410 First University founded at St. Andrews
15th C Scotland becomes a significant trading nation with Netherlands and the Baltic states
16th C More and more Scots adopt Protestant Calvinist views
1513 Disasterous Battle of Flodden against Henry VIII of England in which James IV dies
1522 England declares war on Scotland and France
1543 Mary Queen of Scots crowned (nine months old)
1560 Treaty of Edinburgh withdrew French and English forces from Scotland; Scottish Parliament legislated protestant reformation
1561 Catholic Mary I (Mary Queen of Scots) returns from France and begins power struggle with Protestant nobles
1568 Mary I flees to Elizabeth I’s England, where she is held captive until her beheading
1603 James VI (son of Mary Queen of Scots) becomes King of England and Scotland
1642–44 Civil War within England. Scotland enters on Parliament’s side in return for promised Protestant system in England
1650 Invasion and occupation of Scotland by Oliver Cromwell of England
1660 Charles II restored in England and threatens Scottish Presbyterian Church, causing a series of religious wars
1685 James VII crowned but seen to threaten Protestantism further
1688 Crown offered to Protestants William IV (of Orange) and Mary
1692 Massacre of Glencoe on William’s orders to ‘make an example’
1698 Darien Venture to colonise Panama ends in disaster. Scotland Bank goes bankrupt, encouraging Union with England
1707 Scottish & English parliaments and economies unite
1715 Jacobite Highland Uprising to restore James VII
1745 Jacobite Uprising with Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie)
1746 Battle of Culloden and the beginning of decades of Highland suppression
1770 Canal work begins to make Glasgow reachable from sea, eventually becoming 2nd city of the British Empire
1786 “Model” textile complex and industrial community at New Lanark
19th C The Scottish Highlands change dramatically in the Clearances. Flocks of sheep replace the population and their way of life
1887 Scottish Office, Scotland’s “government” opens
1949 2.5 million Scots sign a Covenant supporting Home Rule
1974 Scottish National Party win 11 seats in parliament
1975 Scotland becomes an oil-producing country
1998 Scottish people vote overwhelmingly for own parliament with limited powers within the UK
1999 Reinstatement of Scottish Parliament
2004 Opening of the new Scottish Parliament Building, Edinburgh