Brtain and Its People at a Glance
Дополнительные упражнения для контроля понимания пройденного материала (уч. Английский язык, 8-й кл., В.П. Кузовлев, Н.М. Лапа и др.)
characteristic, Commonwealth, countryside, county, doubt, eagle, emblem, host, humour, impression, island, landscape, language, lifestyle, opinion poll, pie chart, pipe, population, queue, reported speech, sequence, stereotype, underground, violence, to anticipate, to associate, to boast, to consider, to consist of, to drive, to imagine, to interpret, to link, to make up, to mention, to picture, to predict, to recognize, to remind of, to repute, to scan, to symbolize, ancient, conservative, disappointing, emotional, gentle, hard-working, hospitable, hypocritical, mystical, official, practical, prudent, relaxed, reserved, reticent, snobbish, sociable, specific, strange, superior, surprising, typical, well-mannered, although, though, according to, in my mind, in the way of/that, the way I see it, to jump the queue.
Complex subject (именительный падеж с инфинитивом), sequence of past actions (Past Perfect);
could have done (могли бы сделать – было возможно сделать что-то в прошлом, что не было сделано);
should have done (следовало бы сделать – было бы правильно сделать что-то в прошлом, что сделано не было);
might have done (должно быть – возможность совершения чего-либо в прошлом).
1. Listen to this opinion.
Don’t believe all the stories you hear about how unfriendly the English are. They are very polite and communicative. They will talk to you about the weather, their dogs… Any subject will do. Pardon me, not any subject. Don’t speak loudly about their private life. They worship their privacy. They have a passion for lawns of grass and like compromise.
There is an opinion that the British love of compromise is the result of the physical geography. This may or may not be true. But it is certainly true that the land and climate in Britain don’t have extremes. And that these factors can explain why English people like compromise.
According to the text, which of these sentences are true or false?
1. Though the English are very communicative not any subject will do. _____
2. The English don’t like noisy people. ________
3. They worship their privacy. _____________
4. They like compromise. ___________
2. Listen to the texts and fill in the missing information.
1. London was born hundreds of years before our era. Here, on the banks of the Thames, was a small settlement named Llyn-din, which means a lonely port. To this place in the year 55 BC Julius Caesar came from Rome.
2. The ancient stones of the House of Commons, if they could speak, would tell us many interesting things about the first Norman parliament. They would tell us about Oliver Cromwell who was installed here as Lord Protector.
3. This is Whitehall. There used to be a palace here once, the White Hall, where from the 12th to the 16th century the English kings and queens lived. Now it is just a street of government offices.
4. The first section of the London Underground and the first underground railway in the world – was opened by the Metropolitan railway on 10 January, 1863. What kind of trains were operated on it? Of course, you are right…steam-hauled trains.
5. Tea is the most important of English drinks. But it is a relative late-comer to British shores. Although the custom of drinking tea dates back to the third millennium BC in China, it was not until the mid 17th century that the drink first appeared in Britain. Curiously, it was the London coffee houses that were responsible for introducing tea to England.
1. To this place in the year __________ BC Julius Caesar came from Rome.
2. The ancient stones of the __________, if they could speak, would tell us many interesting things about the first Norman parliament.
3. There used to be a palace here once, the White Hall, where from the ____________ century the English kings and queens lived.
4. The first section of the London Underground – and the first underground railway in the world – was opened by the Metropolitan railway on ________.
5. Although the custom of drinking tea dates back to the _______ millennium BC in China, it was not until the mid _______ century that the drink first appeared in Britain.
3. You will hear a conversation between a tourist, Julia, and a hall porter in a London hotel. Below are five statements about the conversation. Decide which are true (T) and which false (F).
Julia: Excuse me, but could I ask you for some advice?
Porter: Of course, Miss. What can I do for you?
Julia: Well, you see, we would like to repeat the famous trip from “Three Men in a Boat “ and do some sightseeing. Are there any trips you could suggest?
Porter: Yes, certainly. You can get a river boat from Westminster Pier, near the Houses of Parliament.
Julia: What is there to see upstream?
Porter: You will pass by Greater London: Chelsea, Battersea, Kew, Kingston, Richmond. The final point of your journey is Hampton Court. Do you know all these stories about Hampton Court Palace, Miss? Do you want to have an impression you found yourself in the 16th century?
Julia: I have always wanted to visit Hampton Court and its famous labyrinth. How long does it take to get there?
Porter: I think the way there takes about four hours. Boats go slowly up the Thames because of a low water level.
Julia: This has been very kind of you. You’ve been very helpful. Thank you very much.
Porter: It’s my pleasure, Miss. Have a good time.
1. Julia would like to repeat the famous trip from “Three Men in a Boat”. ________
2. They can get the river boat from Battersea. ______
3. They are going upstream. __________
4. Boats go slowly up the Thames because of several floodgates on the way. _________
5. The final point of their journey is Hampton Court. __________
4. Read the short texts and choose the suitable heading from the list A–I for each one. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.
A. The London Aquarium
B. The British Museum
C. St. Paul’s Cathedral
D. The Museum of Natural History
E. The British Airways’ London Eye
F. The Tower of London
G. Westminster Abbey
H. The Science Museum
I. Cabinet War Rooms
Home to a vast collection of classical antiquities, artwork and archaeological finds, from all corners of the British Empire. The collection ranges from Egyptian mummies to the Elgin Marbles.
You are starring in the movie “Sharks”. You are nose to nose with various sea monsters. You can feed the piranhas and visit the imaginative coral reef and rainforest zones.
A very interesting and clever museum for those who are fond of natural science. There are moving dinosaurs, and dodo birds.
World-class museum of scientific discoveries, from penicillin to space travel via time, medicine and everything in between.
This massive observation wheel is an immensely popular and curiously graceful addition to London’s skyline. Offers panoramic views over the city during the slow, 30-minute ride, rising to 450 feet above the River Thames and towering over Westminster opposite.
First consecrated in 1065, with additions by Henry III in the 13th Century, Henry VII in 1503 and Hawksmoor in 1745, it has hosted coronations, weddings and burials of Royalty since 1066. The interior of the church is filled with monuments to poets, statesmen and other worthies.
Christopher Wren’s masterpiece completed in 1770 and the fifth cathedral to be built on this site (the last one was destroyed during the Great Fire.) The cathedral somehow survived the Blitz and is a towering symbol for Londoners. Try out the Whispering Gallery or climb the 627 steps to the Dome for unparalleled views.
(the Blitz – бомбежка Лондона в 1940–41)
The underground headquarters used by Winston Churchill and the British Government during World War II. A labyrinth of spartan rooms, which have been kept virtually untouched since their glory days in the 1940s.
5. Read the text. Five sentences have been removed from the text.
Choose from the sentences A–F the one which fits each gap (1–5). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
A. Once the British Empire included a large number of countries all over the world ruled by Britain.
B. A well-known example is the Cockney of East Londoners.
C. It is the second largest in Britain, after London.
D. Two thousand years ago, in the year 55 BC Julius Caesar struggling forward on his galley to the unknown land saw white cliffs.
E. The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the students take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B.A.).
F. Only the education elite go to Oxford or Cambridge.
An Island State
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) occupies most of the territory of the British Isles. It consists of four main parts which are England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the official name of the state which is sometimes referred to as Great Britain or Britain (after its major isle), England (after its major historic part) or British Isles. But there is one more name: Albion.
“The land behind them must be white too. We shall call it Albion,” said he. Alba in Latin means white, and the name Albion remains to this day.
The population of the UK is nearly 60 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs. Four out of every five people live in towns. The population has remained relatively stable but has aged.
English is not the only language people use in the UK, but it is the official language. Besides standard literary English there are many regional and social dialects. (2)____________________________________
(3)________________________________. The process of decolonisation began in 1947 with the independence of India, Pakistan and Ceylon. Now, apart from a few small islands, there is no longer an empire. But the UK tried not to lose influence over its former colonies. An association of former members of the British Empire and Britain was founded in 1949. It is called the Commonwealth. It includes many countries such as Ireland, the Sudan, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and others. The Queen of Great Britain is also the Head of the Commonwealth, and so the Queen of Canada, Australia and New Zealand…
Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge. Both universities are independent. (4)___________________________ Most of their students are former public schools leavers.
Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges. Each college is different, but in many ways they are alike. Each college has its name, its coat of arms. Each college is governed by a Master.
Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe. (5)___________________________ The town of Oxford is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 911 A.D. and it was popular with the early English kings.
Cambridge University started during the 13th century, and grew until today. Many great men studied at Cambridge, among them Roger Bacon, the philosopher, Oliver Cromwell, the soldier, Newton, the scientist, and Kapitza, the famous Russian physicist.
Read the dialogues. Learn by heart three of them. Think of your own dialogues.
– What do you imagine when you think of Britain and its people?
– The only country that has no climate, but has hedges, the oldest Underground, the Beatles and Princess Diana.
– What do you mean speaking about “lifestyle”?
– I think it’s way of living, including the kind of home one lives in, the things one owns, the kind of job one has and the activities one enjoys.
– Buckingham palace is open to the public all year round. Is that so?
– I’m afraid you are wrong. The state rooms of Buckingham Palace are open to the public for two months a year with walks through the Throne Room, the Music Room and the State Dining Room.
– Could you tell me about historical ceremonies in Great Britain?
– What about exactly?
– The State Opening of Parliament.
– Traditionally, the Queen opens Parliament every autumn. She makes her speech from the Throne saying what the government plans to do. At the State Opening of Parliament the Queen wears a crown and crown jewels.
– What makes a person upper class?
– First of all his or her family background, education, political opinions and even the right kind of accent.
– Education? Right accent? What do you mean?
– The schools such as Eton, Harrow give their pupils self-confidence, the right accent, a good academic background and perhaps, most important of all, the right friends and contacts.
– I see, “the old boy network”.
(old boy network – чувство дружбы, взаимопомощи, основанное на принадлежности к одной и той же школе)
– Public schools… I think it’s rather confusing to call these schools public because these are the schools for the privileged.
– You are quite right. But these schools accept pupils on the basis of an examination, known as Common Entrance. Nothing is impossible for a willing heart.
– Do you know what the best known streets in London are?
– Yes, I’ve read about them. They are Whitehall with important Government offices, Downing Street, the London residence of the Prime Minister and the place where the Cabinet meets, Fleet Street where most newspapers had their offices until the 1980s, and Harley Street where the highest-paid doctors live and some others.
– I know that some structure has been built in London to celebrate the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Do you know its name?
– Yes. I’ve read about it. The Millennium Dome. It is very large with a round roof for exhibitions.
1. Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown. Use the underlined word in your sentence.
1. It is said that the British obey the law and respect authority.
The British are said to obey the law and respect authority.
2. It is supposed that the British are prudent.
The British ____________________________
3. It is known that the British are proud of their sense of humour.
The British ______________________
4. It is considered that the British are countrymen at heart.
The British ______________________
5. It is believed that the British take everything with sense of humour.
The British ______________________
6. It is known that the British are the descendants of different people who settled in the British Isles at different times.
The British ______________________
7. It is supposed that the British like compromise.
The British ______________________
2. Open the brackets using Past Simple and Past Perfect.
1. He (to read ) an article about the British Monarchy by 3 o’clock.
2. The Queen (to receive) some 3 million items of correspondence by 2002.
3. They (to count) that the Queen (to undertake) 251 official overseas visits to 128 different countries.
4. Before she (to enter) the public school she (to get) a good background at her preparatory school.
5. He (to be) sure of a successful future after he (to enter) that famous public school.
6. Kate (to watch) the London Marathon which she (to read) about in her textbook.
3. Express in English.
1. Вы могли бы выучить это.
2. Вам следовало бы выучить это.
3. Вы должно быть забыли про это.
4. Вы могли бы зайти.
5. Вам следовало бы зайти.
6. Вы должно быть потеряли адрес.
7. Вы могли бы позвонить.
8. Вам следовало позвонить.
9. Вы должно быть рассердились на меня.
4. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each sentence to form a word that fits in the space in the same sentence.
1. The ________________ parts of Britain have their own emblems. They are all plants. (DIFFER)
2. Britain is ________________ into areas called counties. (DIVISION)
3. People are ________________ if you jump the queue. (ANGER)
4. Mark became much more ________________ when he got to know us better. (COMMUNICATE)
5. British ________________ is considered to be divided into three main groups of classes: the upper class, the middle class and the ________________ or working class. (SOCIAL, LOW)
5. Complete the text. Use the words from the box.
|focuses lessons running feelings
conflicts respect government across
Pupils to Get Lessons in Respect
Schools in England are to get 13.7 m pounds more to teach pupils manners, (1)__________ and good behaviour.
New Children’s Secretary Ed Balls wants pupils in all primary and secondary schools to have (2)____________ in social and emotional skills by 2011. A programme already (3)_________ in 60% of primary schools, which helps children deal with anger, anxiety and (4)_____________, is being rolled out (5)__________ the nation. It has had a major impact on behaviour and attainment, the (6)____________ says.
The programme (7)____________ on encouraging pupils to understand themselves, manage their (8)__________ and promote social skills and the understanding of others.
1. 55; 2. House of Commons; 3. twelfth to the sixteenth; 4. 10 January 1863; 5. third, 17th
2. The British are supposed to be prudent.
3. The British are known to be proud of their sense of humour.
4. The British are considered to be countrymen at heart.
5. The British are believed to take everything with sense of humour.
6. The British are known to be the descendants of different people who settled in the British Isles at different times.
7. The British are supposed to like compromise.
2. 1. had read; 2. had received; 3. counted, had undertaken; 4. entered, had got; 5. was, had entered; 6. watched, had read
1. You could have learned it.
2. You should have learned it.
3. You might have forgotten about it.
4. You could have come.
5. You should have come.
6. You might have lost the address.
7. You could have rung up.
8. You should have rung up.
9. You might have grown angry with me.
4. 1. different; 2. divided; 3. angry; 4. communicative; 5. society, lower
5. 1. respect; 2. lessons; 3. running; 4. conflicts; 5. across; 6. government; 7. focuses; 8. feelings